Mughal Emperor jahangir

Jahangir preferring a sufi sheikh to kings, 1620
Reign
1605 - 1627
Full name
Nuruddin Salim Jahangir
Born
September 20, 1569
Birthplace
Fatehpur Sikri
Died
November 8, 1627 (aged 58)
Buried
Tomb of Jahangir
Predecessor
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
Successor
Shah Jahan
Wives
Manbhawati Bai , Princess Manmati , Nur Jahan
Offspring
Nisar Begum, Khusrau Mirza, Parwez, Bahar Banu Begum, Shah Jahan, Shahryar, Jahandar
Dynasty
Timurid
Father
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
Mother
Princess Hira Kunwari (a.k.a. Mariam Zamani) (Jodhabai)
Religious beliefs
Islam

Nur-ud-din Salim Jahangir (full title: Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Khushru-i-Giti Panah, Abu'l-Fath Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi [Jannat-Makaani]) (September 20, 1569 – November 8, 1627) (OS August 31, 1569 – NS November 8, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جہانگير, meaning "Conqueror of the World". Nur-ud-din or Nur al-Din is an Arabic name which means " Light of the Faith."Born as Prince Muhammad Salim, he was the third and eldest surviving son of Mogul Emperor Akbar. Akbar's twin sons, Hasan and Hussain, died in infancy. His mother was the Rajput Princess of Amber, Jodhabai (born Rajkumari Hira Kunwari, eldest daughter of Raja Bihar Mal or Bharmal, Raja of Amber, India)

The child was named Salim after the darvesh and was affectionately addressed by Akbar as Sheikhu Baba.

Marriege

The marriage with Manbhawati Bai took place on February 13, 1585. Manbhawati gave birth to Khusrau Mirza. Thereafter, Salim was allowed to marry, in quick succession, a number of accomplished girls from the aristocratic Mughal and Rajput families. One of his favourite wives was a Rajput Princess, known as Jagat Gosain and Princess Manmati, who gave birth to Prince Khurram, the future Shah Jahan, Jahangir's successor to the throne. The total number of wives in his harem was more than eight hundred.

Jahangir married the extremely beautiful and intelligent Mehr-ul-Nisa (better known by her subsequent title of Nur Jahan), in May 1611. She was the widow of Sher Afghan. She was witty, intelligent and beautiful, which was what attracted Jahangir to her. Before being awarded the title of Nur Jahan ('Light of the World'), she was called Nur Mahal ('Light of the Palace'). Her abilities are said to range from fashion designing to hunting. There is also a myth that she had once killed four tigers with six bullets.

Death

The health of Jahangir was completely shattered by too much drinking of alcohol. He was trying to restore it by visiting Kashmir and Kabul. He went from Kabul to Kashmir but returned to Lahore on account of a severe cold. Jahangir died on the way from Kashmir in 1627 and was buried in Shahdara Bagh, a suburb of Lahore, Punjab. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram who took the title of Shah Jahan. Jahangir's elegant mausoleum is located in the Shahdara locale of Lahore and is a popular tourist attraction in Lahore. On his death in 1627 he uttered 'Kashmir only Kashmir'.

Historical Date Of India
four Muslim kingdoms ally to destroy the Vijyanagar kingdom at the battle of Talikota
1565 ad
Akbar's half-brother Muhammad Hakim seizes Kabul
1566 ad
Muslim invaders destroy the Sun Temple at Konark
1568 ad
Akbar moves the Mogul capital from Agra to Fatehput Sikri
1571 ad
Mogul conquer Gujarat
1572 ad
Mughul conquer Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Afghan kings
1574 ad
Mughul emperor Akbar abolishes the tax on non-Muslims .
1579 ad
Akbar mints Ilahi coin (based on the solar year but still in Persian)
1584 ad
Afte death of Muhammad Hakim, Akbar conquers Kabul and moves the Mogul capital to Lahore
1585 ad
Akbar demands that Decca sultans surrender to the Mogul empire
1591 ad
Mughul conquer Sind
1593 ad
Mugul conquer Kandahar
1595 ad
Next History Date  

jahangir Reign

Jahangir promised to protect Islam and granted general amnesty to his opponents. He was also notable for his patronage of the arts, especially of painting. During his reign the distinctive style of Mughal painting expanded and blossomed. Jahangir supported a flourishing culture of court painters.

Jahangir is most famous for his golden "chain of justice." The chain was setup as a link between his people and Jahangir himself. Standing outside the castle of Agra with sixty bells, anyone was capable of pulling the chain and having a personal hearing from Jahangir himself.

Sovereignty, according to Jahangir, was a "gift of God" not necessarily given to enforce God's law but rather to "ensure the contentment of the world." In civil cases, Islamic law applied to Muslims, Hindu law applied to Hindus, while criminal law was the same for both Muslims and Hindus[citation needed]. In matters like marriage and inheritance, both communities had their own laws that Jahangir respected. Thus Jahangir was able to deliver justice to people in accordance of their beliefs, and also keep his hold on empire by unified criminal law.

Jahangir's relationship with other rulers of the time is one that was well documented by Sir Thomas Roe, especially his relationship with the Persian King, Shah Abbas. Though conquest was one of Jahangir's many goals, he was a naturalist and lover of the arts and did not have quite the same warrior ambition of the Persian king. This led to a mutual enmity that, while diplomatically hidden, was very clear to observers within Jahangir's court.

Autobiography

a number of his observations are detailed in Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, also referred to as Jahangirnama. He liked paintings and collected many of them in his palace. Some of them are still found in museums.